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Which Best Explains How Fiber Optic Technology has Improved Communication?

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Which Best Explains How Fiber Optic Technology has Improved Communication?

Optical fiber is used worldwide today. We are all somehow related to optical fiber. But did you know? You can’t imagine how fiber optic technology has changed the face of modern technology. So, which best explains how fiber optic technology has improved communication?

Today we will point out A to Z about optical fiber technology and discuss which best explains how fiber optic technology has improved communication and technology. So, let’s get started.

What is Fiber Technology?

The term “Fiber” also known as “Fibre” stands for a natural or artificial substance longer than its wide. We generally find natural fibers on every natural substance, as in trees, coconuts or animals, etc. Fiber is usually made of chemicals or other substances. We can take synthetic fibers, carbon fibers, optical fibers, etc.

Now, what is optical fiber? The simple answer is that it is an artificial fiber made of silica or plastics, and its thickness will be similar to human hair. Its sole purpose is to transmit light between two ends of fibers. It is a widely used technology now. Because it gives some features such as electromagnetic interference immunity, which is an on-demand technology we are currently using. Metal fibers suffer this kind of issue that fiber optics don’t.

The majority of our internet users use fiber optic cable internet. This fiber is of two kinds; Multi-mode fiber is used for transmitting long diameter data and for single-mode communication links. Other kinds of fiber optic technologies, such as dark fiber. These kinds of fibers are mainly used for secret communication systems. There are also many generations of fiber yet to be discussed.

The Origin of Fiber Optic Cables

Origin of optic fiber

In short, fiber optic cable is an assembly of optical fibers which carry data in light form.

The invention of Fiber Cables :

Charles K. Kao is the person who invented the concept of optical fiber in the 1960s. He is also renowned as the “Father of Fiber-Optic Communications” for his great invention. He discovered certain physical properties of a glass that lay to today’s fiber optic communication system.

 

Design :

Fiber optic cables have two layers; core and cladding. Technically, the cladding is coated with polyimide to defend itself from fiber damage. Different types of sheets form a fiber and make it damage-free. Dark glass is placed within the fibers to prevent light from leaking as it uses the speed of light to transmit data. Its made of fibers which makes it cheaper than those old copper wires.

Communication :

It is very flexible and good for connecting long distances. So, its main use is in the telecommunications industry and computer network systems. The single-mode fiber was used for short-distance communications. Still, the world is adapting to multi-mode fibers instead of single-mode fiber as communication is becoming more important. We use mobile internet, computer internet, etc., for our day-to-day communication purpose.

Power Transmission :

Optical fibers use light to transmit data from one place to another. Why is it better than old systems? Because it transfers data at the speed of light. It uses a beam of light that contains billions and trillions of data at a time. And the speed of light means more speed and quicker data receiving than previous generations of data transmitting systems.

Sensor Technology :

One of the best use of fiber optic is its usage in sensory systems. Even sometimes, the sensors are also optical fibers. It can measure radiations in a sensor. It can also sense intensity, pressure, temperature, infrared light, etc. Extrinsic optical fibers use a multi-mode optical fiber to detect radiation. Extrinsic fiber uses a multi-mode fiber that can transmit modulated light signals to a non-fiber optical device or electrical signal to an optical transmitter.

How Fiber-Optic Systems Works

How fiber optic works

Now, let’s breakdown the fiber-optic system,

An optical fiber is around and hollow dielectric wave-guide (non-leading wave-guide) that pivotally sends light during absolute inner reflection. Filaments comprise a center encompassing a covering layer, both made of a dielectric material. Profoundly, the refractive list of the center should be more prominent than that of the cladding. And the cladding can be sharp in ventured strands or smooth in angle filaments. A laser or LED can give light to the optical fiber.

As we know, fiber is immune to any electrical disruption. It ensures zero crosstalk between signals from various links and no environmental commotion. It even stands strong against electromagnetic pulses generated by nuclear devices. Because fiber optic cables do not carry electricity, so, they safeguard telecommunications equipment in high-voltage situations such as power plants or lightning-prone applications.

Electrical immunity also prevents ground loop problems. Because fiber optic cables do not contain potentially sparking electricity, they are immune to environments with explosive fuming. Wiretapping (a fiber optic connection in this case) is more difficult than an electrical connection. If we see these pointwise, it stands like this :

Refractive Index :

The refractive list is a technique for estimating the speed of light in a material. Light ventures quickest in a space. The speed of light in space is around 300,000 kilometers or 186,000 miles each second. For example, if you call a person from 16,000 kilometers from the other person, then the time difference will be about 80 milliseconds after talking with each other.

Total Internal Reflection 

When the light goes in an optically thick medium and hits a limit at a precarious point (a point more noteworthy than the limit’s basic point), the light is completely reflected. This is called complete inside the reflection. Most modern optical fibers are weak in guiding. This means the difference between the refractive index core and the cladding is tiny, normally under 1%. Light goes through the fiber center and skips this way at the center cladding connection point.

Multi-mode Fiber

Optic fibers with enormous center widths (10 micrometers or more noteworthy) is like a mathematical optics. These fibers are known as multi-mode fibers in the electromagnetic investigation. Light beams  coordinates along the fiber center in multi-mode step file fibers by all-out inside reflection.

Single-mode Fiber

Fibers with a center distance across multiple times the wave’s frequency can’t be demonstrated utilizing mathematical optics. All things being equal, it must decipher the design of an electromagnetic waveguide decreased to an electromagnetic condition as illustrated by Maxwell’s equation. Single-mode fibers have center distances less than 10 micrometers. 

What Kind of Light is Used for Fiber-Optic

What kind of light is used in optic fiber

Let’s take a second to speak about the devices that put the “optic” in fiber optic technology: light sources, also known as optic transmitters. Commercially available fiber optic systems can currently serve one of three light sources: laser, LED, or VCSEL. Here is a brief description of each light source and its uses in fiber optics.

Laser (Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation)

I had no idea that was an abbreviation. Well, it is, and lasers, apart from being fun to play with, serve an important function in many fiber systems. Lasers operate on the most basic level by producing a focused source of one frequency (or color) of light that goes in just one direction. Fiber optics have great life spans, fast modulation speed (the turn on and off light), and high-bandwidth capabilities. Lasers, on the other hand, are more expensive and more complex to calibrate than other light sources.

LED (Light Emitting Diode)

LED is a small, complex semiconductor of less than 1 mm square. They generate light by reconnecting electrons. This is the process by which the electrons in the device reunite with the electron-hole to produce light energy. Fiber optics uses LEDs  because of their small size, low cost, and great brightness. LEDs do not have extremely fast modulation speeds and only have mid-range bandwidths, hence they are best for multi-mode fiber and relatively short cable connections.

VCSEL (Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser)

VCSELs (pronounced ‘vixel’) first emerged in the 1980s. It was a new type of semiconductor laser, and its potential in fiber optics. When Gigabit Ethernet devices were being developed, LEDs were unable to modulate (turn on and off) at the required rates, and conventional lasers were too expensive- enter VCSEL, which modulates at high speeds at a cheaper cost. As a result, multimode fiber was able to accurately transmit lasers; Today we know that these lasers contains OM3 and OM4.

Optical fiber is quite small, around the size of a strand of human hair. It’s material is silica (glass), which ensures its capacity to reflect light in such a way that it can efficiently transmit data. It uses a core that allows light to pass through, cladding that prevents light from escaping, and a covering that protects the fiber from damage and moisture. A fiber with a bigger core may be utilized over short distances with low-cost transceivers, but this can amplify or use between remote sites. Due to its capacity to transmit a single laser with minimal quality loss, a single-mode fiber with a much smaller core can transmit data over longer distances.

What is Good About Fiber Optics?

It needs no saying the importance and key roles of optic fiber that influence our life. From faster connections to the booming telecommunication industry, everything you name. Here are the major roles in which optic fiber technology is playing an initial part to,

Faster Internet Connection

Fast Download Speed :

With the blessings of fiber optic technology, we can now get pretty good internet speed. There was a time when download speed was pretty slow, but now with comprehensive light data transmission system with optical fiber, it has become 100 times faster than before.

Broadband Internet With Better Bandwidth :

Now all internet service providers have switched to optical fiber-based internet, which is more profitable than the old copper data transmission systems. Now the internet is more stable with greater bandwidth and much more reliable.

Telecommunications Industry

Communications :

Optical fiber is one of the most important inventions. With its help, we can communicate over long distances. We use it to connect people. It helps us send messages, pictures, videos, music, and many more. Telephone calls have never been this easy before. Now everything is fast and optical fiber is the future.

Military Communication System :

Military operations greatly need optic fiber technology as this plays a vital role in the military system and communication. SONAR systems, lasers, drones, and sensors use this technology to give your opponent good leverage. Communication is a great part of the war on which optic fiber technology wonders.

Cable System and Live Broadcast :

Now we can see live broadcasts from any part of the world through the blessing of optic fiber technology. The cable system is another thing where optic fiber technology is helping us. Cable television is a very big business nowadays. So they need to make sure their cable system is safe and secure.

They need to ensure that there is no leakage of signals. That is where the optic cable system comes in handy. With the use of light as the signal, it has become more easy and reliable for both businesses and consumers to enjoy seamless signals worldwide. It is much more reliable and handy than old copper system data transmissions.

Medical Improvements

All Kinds of Internal Body Checkups :

Endoscopy uses optic fiber technology. Biomedical researches and microscopy also use this technology. Finding out cancer cells and tumors from the core is now more easy and safe through optic fiber technology. Gastroscopy can examine the stomach. The gastroscope consists of various parts for imaging tumors and ulcers. Laser gastroscopy can remove a swallowed object.

A gastroscopy can also point to a laser that destroys the tumor. The bronchoscope captures the upper passageways of the lungs. Besides, it enables’ blood pressure check-ups, temperature check-ups, and many other healthcare facilities.

Medical Surgeries :

Optical Fiber technology is much more capable of doing some hard surgeries now. The medical sector uses it to do different operations such as cataract surgery, laser eye treatment, and even brain surgery. We can even do touchless spine surgeries also. Optic fiber technology can do these.

Which Best Explains How Fiber Optic Technology Has Improved Communication- Let’s Sort Out

Fiber Optic has made extraordinary developments in telecommunications technology. It has become a popular choice for Ethernet backbone infrastructure, general data networks, high-speed Internet service, and constant reliability over the years.

Fiber optics are now more popular in small to medium-sized business networks. To support IP communications, an increase in bandwidth requires for IP-based devices such as VoIP phones, IP cameras, and video conferencing units. Fiber optics can easily support bandwidth-intensive devices due to its large throughput capabilities.

However, fiber optics has a cost. Installation is more expensive than standard copper cables, and many organizations still do not understand the value of fiber in their networks. The following four advantages, on the other hand, much outweigh the costs of installation.

1. Speed 

Fiber-optic cable is much faster than traditional copper cables which best explains how fiber optic technology has improved communication. Small diameter glass fibers can enable bandwidth speeds greater than 15 gigabits per strand. While copper cabling can manage these speeds, achieving the rates of a single fiber strand would need a huge number of large diameter category 6 cables aggregated together.

2. Secure Communication

For most secure modes of communication, technologists recommend Fiber optic cabling. The cabling’s design makes interception of transmission signaling extremely complex. Any attempts to penetrate the glass cable will lead to “light leakage,” leading to a visible decrease in communications.

3. Long Distance Support 

Fiber cable is an excellent choice for long-distance, point-to-point hardline communications which also best explains how fiber optic technology has improved communication. Traditional copper wiring has a 330ft limit, which limits long-distance communication and requires the use of extra equipment to transmit the signal. As copper cable reaches the maximum length, attenuation begins to set in, resulting in a modest reduction in gigabit transmission speeds. Fiber cables are far superior and less expensive for long-distance communication, with speeds of up to 10 Gb per second at lengths of up to 40 kilometers.

4. Electromagnetic Compatibility

Fiber optic cable is resistant to many of the external pressures that damage copper cables. Industries such as manufacturing where large motors, controllers, and air conditioners start and stop constantly highly recommend using fiber optic. The equipment’s electrometric and radio-frequency interference (EM/RFI) may cause data loss and increased slowness on packet streams as they transit across the network.

 

Thus, I think all the things mentioned above are the factors which best explains how fiber optic technology has improved communication.

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